Industrial-Organizational Psychology
What is Industrial-Organizational Psychology?
Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology is the research and application of different aspects of human thought, motivation, and behavior in the workplace.

I-O psychology predates psychology's official birthdate in 1879. Here are some examples of pre-psychology I-O psychologists:
  • Aristotle: Developed foundations for many modern organizational design concepts.
  • Machiavelli: Offered leadership coaching to early organizational leaders.
  • Thomas Hobbes: Encouraged centralized leadership to counter wild nature of human beings.
  • John Locke: Proposed an early form of participative leadership.
  • Adam Smith: Developed foundations for much of the way businesses have been organized since the time of the Industrial Revolution.
Why Is Industrial-Organizational Psychology Important?
Industrial-organizational psychology helps organizations:
  1. Increase profitability
  2. Recruit and select employees
  3. Identify and development leaders
  4. Improve operational efficiency
  5. Train and develop their workforces
  6. Improve employee morale